Wayne's books at Amazon.com

Wayne's books at Amazon.com
Click for Wayne's books at Amazon.com



 Family relic: .41 Colts, patented 1884 
My great-grandmother Bertie Olson was a Swede, and all of us Swedes are descended from the Queen of Sweden. I know this for a fact because Mildred Gunkel (née Jenkins), a scion of the line in Coyle Oklahoma (pop. 337), stood on her very own front porch one August afternoon with the dust stirring on the blackjack leaves and told me so. 
I was compelled to believe this because, as she informed me, she had a chest dating from about the time of Leviticus which had been handed down from son to son, generation to generation, until it got to her. She was just keeping it until her grandson grew into it. “It’s small,” she said, “about half the size of a cigar box. A little red box, the red chippin off and everything. It's really not very pretty. One leg comes off. But there's not a nail in it." I could take her word for for all of this because the chest was upstairs in the attic at the moment she was speaking, and she told me so herself. 
Perhaps its knowing that the purple is already there pumping in my bloodline that makes me so comfortable with the Farmer Principle of Family History which I am just about to spring upon an unsuspecting world. When a man knows he’s descended from the Queen, he doesn’t have to fret about small potatoes like dukes and earls. 
The Plowman Principle vs. Coming Over with the Conqueror
When Adam delv'd and Eve span
Who was then the gentleman?

A revolutionary rhyme. John Ball used it in his speech to the rebels in the Peasants’ Revolt of 1381 and was later hanged for rousing the rabble. No doubt the couplet's leveling doctrine would get a person hanged in many a genealogical society too, and certainly it would rile many of those who get themselves kinned-up with dukes and kings on genealogical sites, prominently displaying coats of arms. Some of these may have legitimacy, I wouldn’t know, but coats of arms are also for sale and have been for decades--indeed, since “time immemorial.” It’s one of the oldest lines in the buncombe business.
Though professional genealogy has serious functions in forensic medicine and the understanding of inherited disease, at the hobby level it lends itself to the kind of wishful phantasy evident in its origins. Historically, the term “genealogy” often overlapped with “heraldry,” in which the ancestry of nobility was reflected in coats of arms. Modern scholars consider many noble ancestries to be fictions, but the genealogical hobbyist arrives quickly at “the nobility” for the very good reason that most records before the mid-1500s are of the aristocracy. This is true even in England, which as an island un-invaded since the twelfth century has the greatest volume of records from the Middle Ages. Even so, where names from before 1500 have survived, they are of the tiny minority that belonged to a country’s hereditary elite. This fact explains why most people who trace a line back to much before 1600 end up with a coat of arms. The other holders of the name having disappeared, it’d be hard to do otherwise.
As a study, genealogy began with kings hiring scholars to prove that they descended from gods so as to demonstrate the legitimacy of their rule. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle of the ninth century traced the ancestry of several English kings to the god Woden. “Their leaders were two brothers, Hengest and Horsa; who were the sons of Wihtgils; Wihtgils was the son of Witta, Witta of Wecta, Wecta of Woden. From this Woden arose all our royal kindred, and that of the Southumbrians also.” (We’ll run across some of these fairy-tale sets of brothers in the chapters that follow.) Several hundred years later, the Tudor kings from Henry VI to Elizabeth would justify their bloody reigns by having their origins traced back to Brutus of Troy, a legendary descendant of the Trojan hero Aeneas, himself the son of a goddess. 
The Good Book supplies some guidelines. The author of the First Epistle to Timothy in the Greek scriptures enjoins us, “Neither give heed to fables and endless genealogies.” Deuteronomy turns this around and commands, “Remember the days of old / Consider the years of many generations.” Do these two injunctions contradict each other? I prefer to see them as complementary, as though the command is to remember the days of old but to pay no heed to genealogies that tell “stretchers.”
I don’t mean to preach. If there is a morality of genealogy, I wouldn’t know what it is. Indeed, I don’t think of myself as a genealogist at all but rather a family historian, and I do know the morality of history, or rather of the historian: he is obligated to tell the truth according to his lights. Genealogy is necessary to history, as a skeleton is to the body, but it is history--the telling of a story-- that puts the flesh on the bones.

Talking to the Queen of Sweden
It is little short of wonderful how in the United States, which originates in a revolt against royalty, equivalent to cutting off the king’s head, the interest in aristocratic antecedents continues to thrive. Even after Mark Twain burlesqued it in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, when Huck and Jim’s quiet life on the raft going down the Mississippi is invaded by the “king” and the “duke,” two rascals of the worse stripe who can only be consoled if Huck and Jim call them by their pretended titles. Even after William Faulkner had John Sartoris lay it out for us: 
In the nineteenth century, chortling over genealogy anywhere is poppycock. But particularly so in America, where only what a man takes and keeps has any significance, and where all of us have a common ancestry and the only house from which we can claim descent with any assurance is the Old Bailey.

Even after Stephen Vincent Benet in John Brown's Body assured us that in North America “Thames and all the rivers of the kings / Ran into Mississippi and were drowned.”
To be sure, in my story there are a few detours in which we stop to see how the gentry live. We wouldn’t be democratic if we didn’t. We’ve already bowed to the Queen of Sweden. In Chapter 3 we’ll salute the Lacys in early Virginia, but that’s a small collateral line, hardly more than a hiccup,  and I hurry past it because the Lacys are well able to take care of their own. And I fully acknowledge one of the Williamses of North Carolina, a line of educated professionals, some of them having risen to the rank of mayors and such like potentates of regional history, but my tribe is not related to the powerful Williams clans of the planter elite like Joseph Williams, called the Duke of Surry.
In my researches in Granville County North Carolina I wasted a lot of time eliminating Joseph Williams, the "Duke" of Surry County. I wish I had concentrated instead on a figure in my father’s maternal tree who lived in the Duke’s county: David Stidham, born there about 1785, who died in Wise County, Virginia, one of the murder capitals of North America. Fittingly, his grandson William Floyd Stidham, who moved to Lincoln County Oklahoma in 1912, is said to have left eastern Kentucky (close to Wise County VA) with the sheriff not far behind him. Something about a dogfight that left seven men dead. This fact I also know to be true because a second cousin of mine in Chandler Oklahoma has the .41 Colts revolver Great Grandpa Stidham carried with him in Kentucky, and my brother in Tulsa has the .22 “Crackshot” his wife used to keep the squirrels out of her pecan trees and inside her stew pot. We are still trying to locate the old man’s double-barreled twelve-gauge shotgun, but I have no doubt that it too will turn out to be an authentic relic. Surely it’s just a question of taste, but I can’t help preferring shotguns and dogfights to ruffles and lace.
Surely it’s the knowledge of my descent from the Queen of Sweden that makes me comfortable with the Plowman Principle of family history. As I said, when you know you’re descended from the Royal House of Bernadotte, you don’t have to fret about small potatoes like dukes and earls.The rest of my story, the main plot line, is farmers all the way, from the first John Pound raising tobacco in Virginia to my own grandfather raising cotton in central Oklahoma. Because my own father was a farmer (at least until about his 30th year), I have taken John’s occupation to heart, and upon it I’ve constructed what I call “The Plowman Principle” of family history. It states that anyone not a farmer is probably not part of the main plot of my story. This is an eminently plausible theory, considering that down to the end of the nineteenth century 90% of Americans were engaged in agriculture. The cotton economy in central Oklahoma ended with the second world war, and in the book called North of Deep Fork where I tell the Oklahoma phase of the family story, that’s where I stop, 1939 (North of Deep Fork: An Oklahoma Farm Family in Hard Times, 1997; rev. ed. 2011). The book you hold in your hand is its long-delayed prequel.
If much of the genealogical enterprise seems fueled by a craving to attach the researcher to the great and famous, I make no protest against this state of affairs but merely state that such an enterprise does not interest me. “Let us now praise famous men,” says Ecclesiasticus--a beautiful phrase not in the Protestant Bible--but they have been praised so many times, why should I waste my breathe in “vain repetition”? What I want, rather, is to let the forgotten be remembered, if only for a moment, and to find a way to let the forgotten speak. Rather than pull myself up to the height of the great and noble at the risk of offending truth, I am content to wait the universal leveling. In the end, the aristocrats will come down to my level. When the farmer dies, he sleeps with kings and counselors. 
It may be a piece of folly to try to make a book out of the lives of the poor--unless, of course, one is a novelist. At the end of his life, Albert Camus was working on a novel that would include a history of his family, the little that he could know of it growing up in a ghetto in Algiers with no father and a mother and grandmother who were illiterate. In his notes to the work-in-progress he speaks of his father, whom he never knew (he died on the battlefields of World War I before his son was born): “The truly poor speak little of the past--they are too obsessively concerned with surviving in the present.” Then he states his motivation as a writer: “What I must do is tear this impoverished family from the destiny of the poor, which is to disappear from history without a trace.” 
In the American context, Abraham Lincoln had made the point a century earlier. “It is a great piece of folly to attempt to make anything out of my early life,” he advised someone who wanted to publish a campaign biography in 1860. “It can all be condensed into a single sentence, and that sentence you will find in Gray’s ‘Elegy’: ‘The short and simple annals of the poor.’” Lincoln was a complicated man, and it may be that he was being less than Honest Abe here--but it may also well be that he didn’t know that Thomas Lincoln was not his father. Still, his identifying his history with that of the poor who figure in Thomas Grey’s “Elegy in a Country Churchyard,” seems like a good precedent to invoke here. 
It would be vanity for me to say that all my paternal ancestors were poor, but a great number surely were. In pursuing them I have visited many country churchyards, some times finding only smooth fragments of sandstone or a featureless fieldstone, and sometimes not even that.

The Treasure in the Field: Ordinary People
Part of the problem of making a book from the lives of farmers, many of them illiterate or almost so, is that the lack of written documents makes it hard to produce a story, and without narrative to connect events we are reduced to dusty lists. One device I have used is the journey--that is, the story of my search as I traveled from place looking for ancestors. I have written travelogues for the counties I was actually able to drive to and spend some days in the courthouse records, but a third of what follows below was written in a foreign country using books and databases, so the journey has some long stretches in it in which nothing much happens. 
Another device, which some family histories have used successfully, is the mystery. An unsolved murder, or a missing fortune, is ideal. I have located a murder, but the perpetrator was known from the outset, and the only mystery is how he put up with his over-bearing wife as long as he did before reaching for the hammer. As for the lost fortune, I am still waiting to hear of it. 
The best I can produce on the side of mystery is the three graves that have haunted me for two decades now. The first, that of the Revolutionary War soldier William Pound, I believe that my sister and I have recently located. The second, that of Samuel Pounds, born in Chatham County North Carolina in 1778 and said to have died at the age of 100 years and six months in Hancock County Illinois, remains a mystery. We’ve got the grave but we can’t be sure who’s in it. The large stone stands engraved “Samuel Pounds,” but it’s in the wrong county and bears the wrong dates. The third grave, that of the Civil War veteran Thomas Pounds, may be less a mystery than a blank, but it’s a blank with a lot of energy in it. A phone call which I received from a distant Kansas cousin in 1988 inquiring about him was what got me started doing family history. 
The fate of the bones of Thomas Pounds is exemplary and makes him our Representative Man: he disappeared from history without a trace. People like Thomas Pounds are the center of the story that I mean to tell in what follows: the story of the westward movement across North America as exemplified in a family which have no distinction but their ordinariness.

Preview of the Journey
The trek begins in Richmond County in Virginia’s northern neck about 1663. Then begin a series of moves in search of Eden, the earthly Paradise promised by land agents. By 1770 it moves to the backlands of the south, first to the Virginia side of the border in Pittsylvania, Halifax, and Mecklenburg Counties, and then to the North Carolina side in Granville County. In 1803 we go south a couple counties to Chatham and there the family stays for several decades (and some descendants to the present). The younger members, however, are heading west after 1800, soon turning up in the Ohio country (present day Ohio, Indiana, Illinois). Some decades are spent in Guernsey County in southeastern Ohio and then we move across Indiana to western Illinois (Mason and Hancock Counties). Again decades pass before we move into Ray, Caldwell, and Dekalb Counties in west-central Missouri, where we are joined by some immigrant Swedes. The family leaves Missouri to go to the final Eden of Oklahoma for the land run of 1891, but we don’t follow them there because, as I have said, that phase belongs to an earlier book.
A Note on Form and Documentation, and a Word of Thanks
This book was started twenty years ago and is a record of struggle. As a result, it falls into three parts. The first three chapters and the last two chapters were written in 1993 after road trips to collect records in the counties where my ancestors had lived and get a feel for the places. The fourth chapter, on North Carolina, and the fifth, on Ohio, were written in 2011 and 2012 sitting at my computer in Tokyo. The early and late chapters use my journeys as narratives to hold the research together, or at least relieve the tedium of reciting records. The middle chapters have no such device at their disposal, and consequently lack the salt of local cuisine. I have patched the parts together as best I could but I have not hidden the seams. I want the book to reveal the process by which it was written. It want it to be a record of struggle. 
I have to apologize to those rare individuals who will read the whole book consecutively, as they will find a degree of repetition that may be annoying. The book is designed for average readers, whom I imagine as genealogists and family historians, who rather than read consecutively use the Table of Contents and the Index to find the parts that interest them. I have left guideposts for them, even when it means a partial repetition of something said earlier.
I have tried to keep documentation to a minimum and at the same time to supply the essentials of what a reader might like to know about the book’s sources. At the end of each chapter is a short list of print sources, giving author, title, and date of publication. Throughout this book, all references to censuses, tax records, and legal transactions are based on documents I have copied or downloaded. As most of this sort of information is now findable through internet databases, it seemed to me a pointless pedantry to give the physical location, volume, and page number of the original documents. Most researchers do not drive to the county to examine the old records in the courthouse. They sit at a computer and go to the databases. I have supplied the terms needed to run searches. 
  It has been said that genealogy is the science of correcting other genealogists’ errors. I have no doubt that the genealogical side of the present work leaves plenty for later researchers to correct. For readers with questions, corrections, or additions, I can be found online at www.ueno-wayne.org
In the North Carolina and Ohio parts of this book, I have received immeasurable help from my sister Gerry Robideaux, who picked up the mantle of family historian when I dropped it in the late 1990s. Without her encouragement and prodding, I would never have gone back to those early chapters to complete this work. I mention her research several times, but the debt is larger than my references convey.

b. The Great Plains and the Homestead Act

b. The Great Plains 

Character never exists in a vacuum. It emerges in a struggle with the surrounding world. In the case of north-central Kansas, the physical environment was the harshest and most extreme of any encountered so far in the family’s journey west from Virginia. Illinois forms part of the Great Plains, but it’s a part with adequate rainfall. Moving west now into Kansas, they were crossing the 98th meridian where the average annual rainfall drops below twenty inches. From the 100th meridian, the two-thirds mark on an east-west axis, there is generally not enough rain to support agriculture. “The Homestead Act of 1862, with all its promise,” writes John McPhee, “did not take into account ineluctable fact. East of the hundredth meridian, homesteaders on their hundred and sixty acres of land were usually able to fulfill the dream that had been legislated for them. To the west, the odds against them were high.”

a. See That My Grave Is Kept Clean

Lord there's one kind favor, I'll ask of you.
See that my grave is kept clean.
--Blind Lemon Jefferson (1893-1929)

See That My Grave Is Kept Clean

Toward the close of the 1850s Benjamin Pounds with his wife Sarah and their younger children left Illinois. With them were their oldest son Elias, and his family. In 1859, Benjamin was 41, Sarah perhaps a few years younger, Elias 24, and Thomas (the second son ) 20. Their destination was Missouri, but except for Thomas (whose story is told in the next chapter) they would not linger there. The Benjamin and Elias families, would quickly return home to Illinois, but again not to stay. After about a year, they moved permanently to the high plains of north-central Kansas.

8. Missouri and a Forgotten Grave



All members of the Virginia line of the Pound/s family living before 1900 appear under the plural form of the name, although historically they may have used only the singular. Those living in Old England or from the New England line appear under the singular. Married women are listed by their married name, followed by their maiden name in parenthesis. 

Edward 195
Mary Jane (Jarvis) 195
Adams, John 79, 82, 84, 98
Bird 166
Charity (Pounds) 165, 211
Edith 166, 211
Emeline 211
Euphame (Brown) 212
George 166
George Marion 212
Lucretia 166, 211
Robert 21, 166–167, 203, 210–213, 306
Sarah 166, 211
William B. 212
Andrews, Fallie 139
Atkins, Hiram 241
Ayres, S. P., Dr. 252
Bacon, Nathaniel 87
Baker, Hattie 251
Ball, John 24
Ballard, John 176
Bishop 21, 130, 137–139
Elizabeth, “Betsy" 130
Mary Frances 139
Nannie 138
Rebecca 134
Samuel 134
Bausman, Joseph H. 151
Benjamin 203
John M. 203
Bell, Emma (Anderson) 166
Benet, Stephen Vincent 25
Berger, Mr. 246
Berkeley, William Gov. 85
Bessire, Etta (Pounds) 249
Beverley, Robert 85, 91
Blake, Col. John 69–70, 73–74
Mary Ann (Pounds) 199
Mary Ann (Pounds) 193
Samuel Cooper 199
William J. 199
Boone, Daniel 145, 159
Boughton, Anna Naomi (Cooper) 254
Boyd, Jefferson F. 102
Amanda (Pounds) 7
William 22
Bray, Harris 176
Bridge, I. N. 230
John 170
Michael 170
Brodie, Fawn 191
Brown, John 17, 25
Browne、Thomas 3, 12, 39, 121
Bruce, Philip Alexander 87
Frances 104
Byrd, William 6, 95, 99, 104, 112–116, 118, 123, 142
Carrington, Judith 104–107, 110
Carter, William 136
Carteret, John, Earl of Granville 126
Caswall, Henry 168
Cather, Willa 221
Capt. Wes 92
Frances Longwill (Pounds) 92
George 92
Susan M. 92
John 88
Sarah E. (Pounds) 135
Clark, Lola 208
Lucy 162
Major Philip 162
Clement, Maud Carter 116, 161–162
Collins, William 127
Confucius 13, 66, 84
Alexander 89
Alexander Taylor 24
Alexander Taylor 29, 232, 250, 252, 301, 303
Charlotte (Carter) 255
Grace (Baird) 253, 310, 313
James Reynolds (Pounds) 193, 198, 200, 251, 253–254, 256–257, 307–309, 314–315
Sarah (Taylor) 200, 250–253, 309, 313
Theodore Long 166, 197, 232–233, 251, 306–307
Theodore Reynolds 251, 309, 311
William Jr. 190
Cox, Benjamin 176
Crèvecœur, Hector St. John de 155
Crum, John 169
Daniels, Margie 129
Robert 229
William 124
William, Jr. 112
Davis, Blind Gary, Rev. 123
Dickens, Charles 57, 144, 146
Miss 162
Roger 162
Doering, Rhonda 203, 243
Donelson, Capt. John 163
Douglas, Stephen A. 189, 195
John 127–129
William 112, 127–129
Dylks, Joseph C. 170–171
James 136
Joshua 139
Elyea, Samuel 21, 166, 233–235, 237, 306
Emerson, Ralph Waldo 33, 186
Faulkner, William 25
Fooshee, Charles S. 136
Ford, Gov. Thomas 189
Foster, Stephen 103
Fourqurean, Lightfoot B. 100–105
Fuller, Blind Boy 123
Gallatin, Thomas 147
Gill, Barnabas 167
Graves, Robert 41
Gray, Thomas 13, 27, 206
Gregg, Thomas 190
Guiger, Capt. Fredrick 159
Gunkel, Mildred (Jennings) 23, 36
Jeremiah 135
Mary (Dickey) 135
Hallwas, John 180, 187–190, 192, 216
Hardin, James 167
Hargrove, John 127–128
Lena B. 215
Oscar B. 215
Alice (Cooper) 7, 198, 227, 235–240
Howard G. 240
Rita 240
Hefford, Zaccariah 77
Herndon, William H. 173, 195, 202
Hicks, James E. 247
Hicks, Lloyd 68
Daniel 195, 198, 200, 308
Malinda 200
Mary Jane (Pounds) 200
Milton Theodore 200
George Moses 119, 131–132
William Cooper 144
William Dean 144, 168
Hugo of St. Victor 104
Charles 21, 130, 134
Jane (Pounds) 130, 133
Jacob 218
Ingersoll, Louise 115
Ingersoll, Robert G. 195
James I, King of England 71
Jefferson, Blind Lemon 217, 219
Jefferson, Thomas 79, 83, 86, 104, 131, 145–146
Jewell, Lewis R., Lt. Col. 225
Jesse Brooks 178
Joseph Jr. 138
Joseph, Sr. 138
Mary (Cummings) 138
Mary Ann (Pounds) 178
Johnson, John 172
Jolliet, Louis 182
Capt. Gabriel 90
Noel 121
Dicey Anne 102
Thomas 102, 118, 142
Lambert, William 75
Least Heat Moon, William 119
Lee, Ada 238
Leghtan, Nancy J. 229
Eugene M. 249
Myrtle (Pounds) 249
Abraham 17, 27, 173, 182, 185, 195, 202
Robert Todd 174
Thomas 27, 173–174
Lindsay, Vachel 172
Lovern, Joseph 124
Marks, Peter 76
Marquette, Jacques 182
Marsh, Eudocia (Baldwin) 190
Marsh, Robert 136
Masters, Edgar Lee 175, 183–184, 195–196, 202, 243
Matson, W. A. 239
May, Samuel 155
John 246
William 246
Gen. George B. 159–160
Robert 6, 159–160, 180
McCormick, Robert 170
McCulloch, Ben 127
McDaniels, Jo Anna 108, 112, 127, 132
McIntire, John 147
Melville, Herman 48
Merit, Thomas 105, 124
Deacon Jim 155
Hester Ann (Anderson) 212
William 212
Montfort, Joseph 127
Agnes (Hutt) 134
Catren Barker 134
John III 134, 137
Lewis 134
Susanna (Hutt) 134
Morgan, Edmund 73
Elizabeth E. (Pounds) 177
Gideon 177
Newman, John 77
Bertha 23, 36
Oliver 37, 199–201, 308, 315
Elizabeth 167
Robert 167, 209
Palmer, D. L. 241
Pell, Kermit 121
Penn, William 81
Pickett, William 136
Pitt, Wm, Earl of Chatham 131
Poe, Edgar Allan 117
John of Suffolk 47
Robert 47
Antony 47
Cleburne G. 45, 91
Dudley, b1877 48
Ezra 18, 43, 49, 58, 62–63, 65
James, b1669 48
Lee 58, 61–62, 105, 149
Louise 48
Roscoe 48
Sir John 47
Thomas the Pirate 54
Pounde, Thomas, S. J. 43–44, 46–51, 53, 62–64
Amos 7, 225, 241, 245–246, 248
Anderson J. 177
Ann Lyon 92
Ann of PA 152
Annie (Puckett) 22, 245
Archibald Price 177
Archibald T. 21, 32, 41, 130, 136, 138–139, 176
Archie 41, 60, 210
Benjamin F. 227, 248
Benjamin of PA 151
Benjamin, b1817 165, 217, 225, 229–232
Benjamin, Jr. 22, 203, 211, 226, 241, 244
Capt Richard 92
Caroline Isabelle (Thompson) 199
Catherine, m.1816 124
Catherine, m1817 105
D-R Sam 150–153, 156
Delilah (McKinney) 242
Delmer 248
Drusilla (Lacy) 88, 102
Drusilla, m1823 105, 124
Elias 7, 22, 200, 203–207, 209, 213, 217–219, 224–225, 227, 240–242, 245
Elizabeth (Hite?) 150
Elizabeth Joy 21, 74, 76
Elizabeth, dau of Eliz. (Hite?) 152
Elmer 249
Emmaline (Purcell) 178
Etta May (Otto) 243
Fanny 124
Felix 124
George Benjamin 22, 197, 209–210, 244
Grace J. 248
Harriet (Hankins) 177
Hazel (Sutton) 41
Henrietta 124
Henry Albert 177
Hessy 206
Isaiah, b1850 206
James Andrew 177
James Harding 7, 22, 226, 249
James L. 178
Jamima (Guipre) 243
Jane (Hadley) 21, 130, 135, 177
Jane or Jean, b. abt 1720 88, 124
Janett (maiden name unk) 249
Jency 124
Jessie (Brown) 172
Jewel H. 248
Jincey, m1809 105
Jincy (Todd) 130, 136, 176
John Edward 172
John the Cobbler 56
John, b1615 69, 73, 76, 79
John, b1687 76
John, b1725 126
John, b1738 88
John, b1846 206
John, m. Lacy 102
Joseph B. 177
Joseph, b1821 165, 191
Joseph, b1848 193, 199, 210
Katy 124
Lena (Archer) 45
Lewis B. 206
Lewis L. 177
Lewis T. 130, 136
Lincoln 241–243
Louis Cooper 243
Lucy 130
Margaret 76
Margaret (Bradley) 88
Margaret (Johnson) 130, 136, 176
Martha R. 178
Mary Elizabeth (Tune) 94
Mary J. (Davidson) 229
Mary of PA 152
Minnie 249
Mourning (Lowe) 21, 130, 136, 139
Myrtle 249
Nancy (Tout) 177
Nancy Jane (Wallace) 22, 207, 227, 241–242
Nannie, Aunt 106
Naomi Susan 5–7, 68–69, 87, 89, 104, 115–116, 134, 148–150, 153–154, 156, 158, 160–161, 164, 191–193, 195–198, 200, 208–209, 232–233, 238, 256–257, 301, 305
Opal (Earp) 40–42
Rachel of PA 152
Rachel, m1786 104
Samuel of PA 151
Samuel, b1690 76
Samuel, b1755 88, 92
Samuel, b1778 130, 148–153, 155–156, 185, 205
Samuel, b1813 165
Samuel, b1839 178
Sarah (Downs) 177
Sarah (Williams) 157, 225
Sarah G. (Barron) 177
Sarah, b1787 130, 135
Solomon, b1760 88, 104
Susana (Williams) 158, 160
Susanna (Todd) 177
Susanna of PA 152
Sylving 152
Theodore Cooper 242–244
Thomas E. 177
Thomas Franklin 22, 43
Thomas Franklin 43
Thomas Jr., b1717 21, 88
Thomas, b1687 76, 87
Thomas, b1755 88
Thomas, b1794 130
Thomas, b1840 244
Thomas, Jr., b1717 88, 123
William Henderson 178, 226
William Henry 193, 199, 211
William of Culpeper 90
William S. 177
William, b1749 68, 93, 117, 149
William, b1790 130, 135, 177–178
Wilson 105
Pownd, John 60
Rightsell, Mr. 139
Robertson, Thomas 127
Robideaux, Gerry (Pounds) 29, 119, 137, 150, 164
Rolfe, John 71, 91
Ropp, John 167
Rutledge, Ann 174, 202
Sandburg, Carl 196
Sanks, Adeline (Horner) 200
Simpson, Richard 51
Joseph 168, 171–172, 183–184, 188–192, 215–216, 307
Leonard 127
Louisa Jane (Pounds) 193, 199
Milton Oliver 199
Polly 127
Sidney H. 199
Snow, Lorenzo 172
Starke, Rebecca 86
William Floyd 26
Stiltz, Jacob 241
Strachey, William 71
Stratton, Thomas 151
Tanneyhill, R. H. 169
Taylor, Alexander 251
Joseph 162
Judith Crawford 162
Lucy 162
Thoburn, _____, Bishop 237–238
Thomas, Elijah 101
Benjamin 126
Elizabeth 126
Tolberd, Joel 105, 124
Trogdon, William 120
Trollop, Fanny 145
Tuck, Edward 102
Tucker, Robert 127
Twain, Mark 25, 47, 155, 161, 174, 191
Benjamin Franklin 224, 227–228
John Wesley 213–214, 230
Rachel (Pounds) 7, 104, 203, 213, 215, 225, 232, 241
Robert of PA 152
Warne, _____, Bishop 237–238
Washington, Pres. George 163
Wayne, "Mad Anthony," Gen. 38–40, 159
Wayne, John 40–41
Webb, Walter Prescott 182, 220
Webster, John B. 151, 153
Isaac 131, 137
Mary (Pounds) 131
Edgar 252
Mary (Taylor) 251–252, 310
White, Cecil 166
Whitman, Walt 96
David Champness 163
Doctor Crawford 163
James Mastin 163
John, b1679 116, 161
John, f. of Wm Clayton Williams 162
John, m. Miss Dixon 162
Joseph C. 212
Joseph Terry 104, 116, 160, 162, 165
Joseph, Duke of Surry 26, 89, 116, 126, 160–161
Joseph, m. Lanier 115
Joseph, RWS, d1838 165
Lewis 162
Mary Ann (Harness) 163
Mumford 164
Naomi (Anderson) 211
Nathan S. 95, 130, 134–135, 160
Nathaniel, b1712 161
Pierre 162
Rebecca (Lanier) 116, 161
Robert, m. Lanier 115
Roger 81, 84
Sarah (Lanier) 116, 161
Susana 116
Thomas Terry 163
William Clayton 162
William Mastin 163
William, s. of John Williams 162
Doc 241–242
Samuel 241
Wilson, T. J. 252
Witt, Nellie (Pounds) 249
Zane, Ebenezer 146